1999 Acura Integra-- Powertrain
The Integra features two distinct engines. The LS and GS models offer an all-aluminum, 1.8-liter, 16-valve, DOHC, 4-cylinder engine with programmed fuel injection (PGM-FI). This power plant produces 140 horsepower at 6300rpm and 127lb ft of torque at 5200 rpm.
The GS-R features a 1.8-liter engine equipped with the Variable Valve Timing Control (VTEC) system pioneered in the Acura NSX. It also features Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI), a dual-stage intake system, a knock sensor, a bridge, oil jet piston cooling and a number of other innovations to durability and smoother operation. All this adds up to 170 horsepower and 128 lb ft of torque at 6200 rpm. These impressive figures give it one of the highest specific outputs of any normally aspirated engine sold.
VARIABLE VALVE TIMING AND LIFT ELECTRONIC CONTROL (VTEC) SYSTEM
The VTEC system, first pioneered in the Acura NSX, works similar performance magic in the Integra GS-R. As the performance of the NSX has already been amply demonstrated, VTEC is an innovative solution to an age-old automotive engineering problem. It elegantly solves the trade-off between tuning an engine for either high-end horsepower or low-end torque. With VTEC, engineers no longer have to compromise between the two. VTEC-equipped engines can have the best of both, especially when the system works in conjunction with the dual-stage intake manifold.
The VTEC system uses three cam lobes and three corresponding rocker arms for each pair of valves. The VTEC system operates on both the intake and exhaust valves. The two outer cam lobes have a profile that optimizes low-speed torque and response. The middle lobe has a high-lift, longer-duration profile that is designed to optimize high-end horsepower.
At low rpm, the middle rocker arm is idle. At a predetermined engine load and speed, the middle rocker arm is activated by means of a computer-controlled hydraulic piston which locks all three rocker arms together. The middle rocker arm forces the two outer rocker arms to follow the higher lift and longer duration profile of the middle cam lobe, allowing the engine to draw and expel more air and consequently produce more power. This simple, yet elegant, design has proven its effectiveness as well as its reliability in both the NSX and the previous generation Integra GS-R.
The changeover point between low lift and high lift in the GS-R is 4400 rpm, for excellent midrange torque and to fully exploit the benefits of the dual-stage intake manifold. By carefully balancing the 4400 rpm VTEC changeover point and the 5800 rpm opening of the second intake runner of the dual-stage intake manifold, the GS-R has an almost flat torque curve from 2500 rpm to 7200 rpm. This makes the GS-R engine responsive under all operating conditions, especially when going from part-throttle, steady-state cruising to full throttle.
The GS-R engine utilizes the latest combustion technology to provide a combination of fuel efficiency and power. Because of the low surface-to-volume area of the chamber, minimal surface area is exposed to the heat of combustion and more heat is retained in the expanding gases, resuIting in increased thermal efficiency. The "squish" area around the combustion chamber is also increased, yielding increased gas turbulence, faster flame propagation and even better efficiency.
Also, the fuel injectors point almost directly toward the center of the intake valves, helping to reduce fuel condensation on the intake port walls, improving drivability and engine response.
DUAL-STAGE INTAKE MANIFOLD
The dual-stage intake anifold on the GS-R engine features two intake runners for each cylinder, one longer than the other. When operating under 5800 rpm, only the longer of the two runners delivers air to the cylinder. Above 5800 rpm, a butterfly valve in the bore of the short runner opens to allow the passage of additional air to the cylinder. This has the desired effect of boosting midrange and high-end power output.
PISTONS AND CONNECTING RODS
In conjunction with a lightweight piston design, the GS-R engine also uses a sophisticated connecting rod design. Constructed of high-strength steel, this connecting rod is thinner and lighter than a conventional connecting rod, yet it's 26 percent stronger.
The combination of lightweight pistons and connecting rods helps to reduce reciprocating inertia and enhance throttle response significantly.
OIL JET PISTON COOLING
To help ensure long-term durability and reliability, the GS-R engine uses an oil jet cooling system. A jet of pressurized engine oil is directed to the underside of the piston to help dissipate the extreme heat generated during sustained high rpm operation. This technology has proven itself in Formula One and other top-level racing engines.
SURFACE-ORIENTED CRYSTAL BEARING MATERIAL
The use of a surface-oriented crystal bearing material was pioneered in Formula One racing and has been adapted for use in the GS-R VTEC engine. Unlike the surface of conventional bearing material, the crystal bearing surface has molecules oriented into a pyramid shape. This surface traps a layer of oil and holds it far better than conventional bearing surfaces, reducing friction and enhancing reliability.
FIVE-SPEED MANUAL TRANSMISSION
In order to maximize the performance and efficiency of each Integra model, two different 5-speed manual transmissions are utilized. The transmission used in the GS-R model features different ratios, bearing design, clutch, flywheel, second, third and fourth gear synchronizers and reverse idler gear than the transmission for the LS and GS engines. The differences were necessary to handle the higher output of the GS-R engine, to ensure durability and reliability and to maximize performance and fuel economy.
The main design goals of the GS-R transmission were to take advantage of the additional low- and midrange power and to enhance the GS-R engine's response without excessive rpm in freeway driving.
All manual-equipped Integra models feature a short-stroke shift linkage of exceptional rigidity. The system approaches the quality feel and short stroke of the Acura NSX shift linkage system.
Both manual transmissions feature a refined hydraulic clutch unit to provide progressive engagement and low clutch-pedal effort.
As in the past, all Integra models feature equal-length halfshafts, which virtually eliminate torque steer.
ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED FOUR-SPEED AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION WITH GRADE LOGIC CONTROL SYSTEM
The optional, electronically controlled four-speed automatic transmission, available in LS and GS models, is highly refined unit designed to offer a superb blend of sporty response and sophisticated manners. It features an ignition retard system to reduce shift-shock, a torque-load control shift sequence, a low-hold feature to enhance performance on driver demand, a large-capacity torque converter to reduce slippage and provide a more direct feel and Grade Logic Control System to reduce unwanted shift hunting on up-and downhill grades.
In operation, Grade Logic Control compares the actual driving condition with a map stored in the electronic control unit (ECU) memory. Based on the degree of variance between actual driving conditions and the map, the system either allows shifting or prevents it, in order to minimize frequent gear changes. In essence, the Grade Logic Control can estimate the grade of a hill by measuring the vehicle speed and throttle angle and comparing these to the map in the ECU. The system holds the transmission in a lower gear for better uphill acceleration and also provides additional engine braking in downhill driving.